History and Heritage

Tuesday, July 26, 2005

Time Line of Indo-European Peoples and Cultures

after Cyril Babaev with modifications by M.-G. Boutet and David Frawley

Before the Ice Age ended Central Asia was colder and wetter. After the Ice Age it was wetter for a time until the heat dried up all the melting glaciers.

It seems that the heart of the original Indo-European homeland, the original Arya-Varta at the end of the Ice Age, was in the Himalayas or surrounding valleys. The Indus-Saravati region was a desert in the Ice Age period. Only after the end of the Ice Age did it become fit for agriculture.

There were several Arya-Vartas. Vedic Arya Varta was on the Sarasvati. Afghani Ariana was on the Harirud (Sarayu). Persian Arya-Bija was in the Himalayas. It also seems that we have two groups of the Aryas. A northern Danava group centered in Bactria and Sogdia, and a southern Sudanava group in the Indus-Sarasvati, with Afghanistan/Gandhara as the link region, with naturally much contact between the two.

The original homeland of the Danubian and Pontic cultures of Europe was positioned East and South of the Aral Sea in present day Turkestan between the Syr Darya and Amu Darya (Oxus) rivers and Bactria, Sogdia neighbouring the Indus culture South.

Arya Varta is also called Ila Varta, the land of Ila, the daughter of Manu, connected with Sarasvati as a Goddess of speech and learning.

Manu was said to have come from South India near the end of the Ice Age and took refuge in the Himalayas. That was his first land. This first land of Manu, Arya Varta or Ila Varta was connected to Mount Meru.

After the end of the Ice Age he returned south and founded the new Arya Varta or Ila Varta on the Sarasvati and Drishadvati Rivers of north India. This would have been around 10,000 - 8000 BCE.

As for Uttara Kuru, which was also connected to Manu, I have been able to trace it in Vedic texts to the upper Indus, Gilgit, Baltistan and Ladakh to Mount Kailas in Tibet. I have not been able to trace it further north or west, though this might be possible. It was also a famous land of Soma. Along with Kashmir, Kulu and other Himalayan valleys, it was the spiritual homeland of the Vedic people.

Around 10 000 BCE and earlier, spread of Nostratic into Eurasia from warmer climates of North India

9000 BCE - 8000 BCE domestication of animals, start of agriculture and village life

8000 BCE expansion of early Dravido-Indo-European culture from north-western Indic sub-continent into Central Asia

About 7000 BCE - 6000 BCE Proto-Indo-European unity and common language in Central Asia Individuation of Proto-Dravidic and Proto-Indo-European as separate speeches

About 6000 BCE Development of agriculture and irrigation in the Indus, Mesopotamian and Black Sea Dravidian and Indo-European cultures Early occupation of Pontic steppes and lower Danube, with horses domesticated about 6000 BCE

About 5500 BCE - 5000 BCE Proto-Indo-European culture with village life develops in the Pontic and Danubian areas

Around 5000 BCE - 3800 BCE - Danubian Vinca culture Husbandry, agriculture and horse domestication in Pontic areas

About 4000 BCE Introduction of metallurgy, agriculture and rudimentary writing (Lepensky Vir) 4500 BCE - 4000 BCE Regrouping of large villages into cities in Mesopotamia and SarasvatiIndus valleys

About 4000 BCE - About 3500 BCE Proto-Indo-European areal dialects

About 3500 BCE Western expansion, Anatolian branch moves apart Emergence of city states: Uruk 3300 BCE, Susa 3000 BCE in Sumer; Harrapa, Mohenjo Daro 2350 BCE in Indus valley Northern Indo-European cities and hill forts: i.e.: Shortugai, on Oxus in Bactriana. India had its seven sacred cities that are mentioned in the Rig Veda at least by number

About 3300 BCE The Indus cities can now be traced back to 3300 BCE. The largest is Rakhigeri in the Kurukshetra region which recent excavations show is four times the size of Mohenjo Daro. These were all Vedic settlements. The Indus Civilization is entirely Vedic. This includes Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Curiously a new site, Rahkhigheri in Kurukshetra, though not well excavated was four times the size of Mohenjodaro. The Vedic Purus were the people of the Sarasvati to the sea and were responsible for the urban phase of that culture which began by 3300 BCE according to more recent evidence.

About 3000 BCE Spread of Indo-European languages into Western Europe with the Beaker cultures about 3000 BCE. -Kurgan or Pit Grave culture in the Pontic region that about 3000 BCE. -Corded Ware culture spread over the North European Plain, to southern Scandinavia and to the Baltic region and Russia (Sherrat 1994a & b)

About 2500 BCE Indo-Europeans spread on the Atlantic fringe of North-western Europe -Bell-beaker culture, a variant of the Corded Ware beakers in the Rhine delta, spread over most of western Europe as far as Scotland, Portugal and Sicily (Sherrat 1994b).

II period:
Individuation and differentiation
of Indo-European identities
(25th BCE - 13th BCE)

2250 BCE Proto-Hellenic Achaeans come to Greece
2100 BCE Hittites and Luwians settle in Central Asia Minor
2100 BCE Italo-Celtic tribes enter Europe
2000 BCE Proto-Italic tribes come to Italy
2000 BCE Doric Greek tribes settle in Illyria
1900 BCE Mycenae founded by Achaeans in Greece
By 1900 BCE when the Sarasvati dried up many peoples migrated mainly to the east of India but some also went west.
1750 BCE - 1250 BCE Ancient Hittite (Nesian) texts from Asia Minor
1700 BCE Rise of the Aryans of Persia and India: development of Mohenjo-Daro North India Aryan culture
1700 BCE - 1350 BCE Aryans identified as one of the nations of the Mitanni Empire
1600 BCE The Old Hittite Kingdom founded
1475 BCE Achaeans invade and conquer Eastern Crete
1450 BCE The New Hittite Kingdom founded
1450 BCE - 1050 BCE The Linear B script used in Greece
1450 BCE Assumed date for the first Veda created in India
1400 BCE Proto-Celts arrive in Spain
1400 BCE Achaeans appear on Cyprus
1400 BCE Slavs - a separate nation
1350 BCE - 750 BCE Luwian and Palaic texts in Asia Minor and North Syria
1300 BCE Illyrians spread from Pannonia to Dalmatia

III period:
The Great Unrest
(13th BCE - 7th BCE)

1250 BCE Phrygians come from Balkans to Asia Minor - the first Great Movement of Nations begins
1250 BCE First mentioning about Lycians
1250 BCE Baltic peoples move north and east
1230 BCE - 1150 BCE "Sea Peoples" destroy Hittite Kingdom, invade Syria, Palestine, Egypt 1230 BCE Achaeans conquer Troy
1200 BCE Achaeans start migrating to Crete, Cyprus, Asia Minor
1200 BCE Celtic cultures in Gaul (Gallia) and Germany (Germania)
1200 BCE Illyrians arrive at South Italy
1200 BCE Doric tribes invade Greece; soon they replace the Mycenaean civilisation
1100 BCE Thracian peoples come to the Balkans
1100 BCE New wave of Italics comes to Italy
1000 BCE Vedic people were in Sri Lanka by 1000 BCE, if not earlier.
900 BCE Illyro-Dravidian Etruscans in Italy from the Carian coast. Proof of a Dravidian language in Europe with I.E. invasions
800 BCE Avesta created in Iran
753 BCE Rome is founded by Italics
750 BCE - 250 CE Phrygian inscriptions
750 BCE Greeks begin their Great Colonisation effort in the Mediterranean outports
738 BCE Phrygian Kingdom founded in Asia Minor
730 BCE New wave of Proto-Celtic Cymmerians invade Europe and Asia and reach Pannonia and Lydia
720 BCE Armenian Kingdom
700 BCE Lydian Kingdom founded in Asia Minor
700 BCE Median Kingdom founded in Iran
690 BCE Cymmerians overturn the Phrygian Kingdom
675 BCE Scythians push out the main group of Cymmerians from Asia while others merge with the Tokharian Issedones and Sacians to the East
650 BCE Celts settle in Britain and Ireland

IV period:
Secondary Migrations
(7th BCE - 1st BCE)

650 BCE - 350 BCE Lydian and Carian inscriptions in West Asia Minor
650 BCE Scythians move into Europe filling in the void left by the Celtic western migrations
639 BCE Elam loses its independence
600 BCE First Italic inscriptions
600 BCE New Celtic invasion to Spain
600 BCE Lydians extrude Greeks from Asia
590 BCE Scythian Kingdom in Asia destroyed by Medians
559 BCE
Persian Kingdom founded
550 BCE - 330 BCE Old Persian Texts and Inscriptions
550 BCE - 250 BCE Thracian inscriptions
550 BCE - 50 BCE Messapic and Venetic inscriptions
546 BCE Lydia and Asia Minor conquered by Persians
510 BCE
Rome gains independence from Etruscans
495 BCE Macedonia under Greek influence
493 BCE Persians capture Miletus
483 BCE Indo-Aryan expansion into Ceylon
480 BCE Thracian Kingdom of Odrisses
474 BCE Etruscan expansion stopped in Italy
450 BCE Celtic tribes move into Italy
449 BCE Greek decisive victory over Persia
380 BCE Illyrian Kingdom founded
350 BCE - 70 BCE Restoration of Scythian Kingdom in Steppes
330 BCE - 250 BCE Greeks spread all over Asia 3
22 BCE - 64 BCE Armenian Kingdom
320 BCE - 187 BCE Maurya Kingdom in India
280 BCE Celts arrive to the Balkans and Asia Minor
267 BCE All of Italy conquered by Rome
250 BCE armatians come to Europe
250 BCE - 135 BCE Bactrian Kingdom
247 BCE - 225 CE Parthian Kingdom

146 BCE Greece conquered by Rome
35 BCE Iranian, Tokharic, and Turkish tribes plunder Bactria
133 BC Spain conquered by Rome
100 BCE - 20 BCE Hellenic and Iranian people leave Bactria and Sogdiana
50 BCE Gaul conquered by Rome
31 BCE Thrace conquered by Rome
9 BCE Illyria and Pannonia conquered by Rome



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